IN VITRO ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND HOMEMADE FUNGICIDES ON GROWTH OF PHYTOPHTHORA PARASITICA DASTUR.

Andreea Alexandra Timofte, Florin Daniel Lipșa, Andreea Mihaela Florea, Eugen Ulea

Abstract


Several essential oils (EOs) and homemade fungicides were evaluated for their efficacy as potential fungicides against Phytophthora parasitica. Not all EOs were found to kill or inhibit the growth of P. parasitica mycelium, but when found, it was on a dose-depended manner. The aim of this paper was to find substitutes to synthetic fungicides currently used in the control of oomycete pathogen P. parasitica. The antifungal activity of 22 commercially purchased essential oils, along with homemade fungicides based on baking soda, garlic and hydrogen perodixe were investigated against P. parasitica. For the homemade fungicides, we have selected the most used recipes by international farmers. EOs are complex mixtures and we observed a synergistic activity ascriptable to the phytocomplex, but also the activity of some major components. This may lead to the differences observed in our tests. The common compounds of EOs that had an influence over the growth of P. parasitica mycelium are eugenol, eugenol acetate, iso-eugenol, borneol, dipetene, limonene and β-caryophyllene. As the present paper showed, the oil concentrations necessary to kill P. parasitica are most of the times much higher than those required to inhibit their growth.


Keywords


Phytophthora parasitica, essential oil, inhibition, mycelial growth, antifungal activity

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bakkali F., Averbeck S., Averbeck D., Idaomar M. (2008). Biological effects of essential oils—A review. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2008, 46, 446–475.

Balz R. (1999). The Healing Power of Essential Oils, 1st ed.; Lotus Press: Twin Lakes, WI, USA, 1999; pp. 27–80.

Dung N.T., Kim J.M., Kang S.C. (2008). Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oil and the ethanol extract of Cleistocalyx operculatus (Roxb.) Merr and Perry buds. Food Chem. Toxicol., 46, 3632–3639.

Hickman C. (1958). Presidential address: Phytophthora—plant destroyer. Trans Br Mycological Soc.; 41(1):1–13. doi: 10.1016/S0007-1536(58)80001-7.

Holmes G.J. and Eckert J.W. (1999). Sensitivity of Penicillium digitatum and P. italicum to Postharvest Citrus Fungicides in California. Phytopathology 89:716–721.

??can G., Kirimer N., Kurkcuoglu M., Baser M.K.H. (2005). Composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of two endemic species from Turkey: Sideritis cilicica and Sideritis bilgerana. Chem. Nat. Compd., 41, 679–682.

Kroon L.P., Brouwer H., de Cock A., Govers F. (2012). The genus Phytophthora. Phytopathology. 102(4):348–364. doi:10.1094/PHYTO-01-11-0025.

Langenheim J.H. (1994). Higher plant terpenoids: a phytocentric overview of their ecological roles. J. Chem. Ecol., 20, 1223–1280.

Latijnhouwers Maita, de Wit P., Govers Francine (2003). Oomycetes and fungi: similar weaponry to attack plants. Trends Microbiol.; 11(10):462–469. doi: 10.1016/j.tim.2003.08.002.

Meng Y., Zhang Q., Ding W., Shana W. (2014). Phytophthora parasitica: a model oomycete plant pathogen. Mycology, 5(2), 43–51. http://doi.org/10.1080/21501203.2014.917734.

Pengelly A. (2004). The Constituents of Medicinal Plants, 2nd ed, Allen & Unwin, Sydney, Australia.

Pichersky E., Noel J.P., Dudareva Natalia (2006). Biosynthesis of plant volatiles: Nature’s diversity and ingenuity. Science 2006, 311, 808–811.

Tabassum N. and Vidyasagar G.M. (2013). Antifungal Investigations on Plant Essential Oils. A Review. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, Vol 5, Suppl 2, 19–28.

Werner S., Steiner U., Becher R., Kortekamp A., Zyprian Eva, Deising H.B. (2002). Chitin synthesis during in planta growth and asexual propagation of the cellulosic oomycete and obligate biotrophic grapevine pathogen Plasmopara vitícola. FEMS Microbiol Lett.; 208(2):169. doi: 10.1111/j.1574-6968.2002.tb11077.x.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/agrisp.v105i1-2.12921



Copyright (c) 2018 AGRICULTURE, Science and Practice Journal

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

AGRICULTURA
AcademicPres
University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
3-5 Manastur St., 400372 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
Tel: +40-264-596.384 | Fax: +40-264-593.792 
biroupublicatii@usamvcluj.ro