Conservation of Genetic Diversity in Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris)

Aurel Maxim, Mignon Șandor, Vasile Roman, Daniel Bontea, Adriana Opincariu, Lucian Mihălescu

Abstract


In the last two decades, both on International and European level a series of treaties and laws have been devised in order to save local varieties of crop plants. The most important methods of traditional seed conservation are on farm and ex situ (Maxim et al., 2010; Kontoleonet al., 2009). The identification of local Romanian varieties of bean, their morphological and agronomic description, seed production and its spreading in the purpose of genetic erosion reduction. Their have been taken into study 13 local varieties of bean. For the morphological description descriptors have been used accordingly to the IPGRI (International Plant Genetic Resources Institute). For the evaluation of the diseases attack, frequency (F%), intensity (I%) and degree of attack (GA%) have been calculated.The exchanges of seed between farmers were facilitated through the online catalog edited by the Eco Ruralis Association that promotes traditional seeds. Of the 13 local varieties of beean taken into study, two are with determined growth(15.3%), and 11 are with undetermined growth(84.7%). The most significant production of pods on the plant was documented on local variety MM 1039 (2.736kg), and the most significant production of beans on plant was documented on local variety HD 904 (1.156kg). The most resistant varieties against bacterian attack, anthracnose, aphids and rust were: SJ 890, CJ 909, CV 917 și HD 1159. The growing phenomenon of genetic erosion implies the indentification and the conservation of crop plants. In the year 2015, 13 local varieties of bean have been taken into study that were used for conservation in seeds’ genbank and for the exchange of seeds between farmers.


Keywords


agrobiodiversity, bean, bioconservation, landraces, ”on farm”.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/buasvmcn-agr:12429


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