Proximate Composition, Microbiological Quality and Sensory Attributes of Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and Emperor Sea Bream (Lethrinus spp.) Fillets Sold on Retail Market

Cătălina Nicoleta Boițeanu, Monika Manthey Karl, Horst Karl, Carsten Meyer, Constantin Savu

Abstract


Introduction: The variety of seafood on the European market has considerably increased in recent years. This study presents data to the main nutritional values and the sensory properties of two exotic fish species, mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) and emperor sea bream (Lethrinus spp.), sold on retail market in Germany. Information on the quality of frozen and glazed fillets is still missing, but is important to characterize these products. This also includes details on the substances added to increase the water-binding ability.

Aims: The paper aims to assess the quality of exotic fish fillets sold on the German market, through the evaluation of physical and chemical parameters, microbiological quality and sensory attributes.

Materials and methods: 10 samples of each fish species were analysed after homogenisation to determine the following parameters:  pH-value (with a pH meter); water (gravimetrically); ash (in  a muffle furnace at 550 °C); salt (NaCl; by auto-titration); fat (by a modified Smedes method); protein (with a LECO TruSpecN based on the principles of the Dumas combustion method); total phosphorus content (photometrically); total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N, using the EU reference method); total viable bacteria count (TVC) and specific fish spoiling bacteria (SSO) (by decimal dilutions method). The sensory assessments were done with cooked and fried fillets by a panel consisting of 6 specialists, using a descriptive method.

Results: Lipid, ash and salt contents of mahi-mahi were comparable to the emperor sea bream values. Due to low lipid content, both species can be classified as lean species. The protein amount of emperor sea bream was significantly higher compared to mahi-mahi and many other common fish species. In mahi-mahi samples, slightly higher values of total phosphates content were found. The pH values of emperor sea bream were in a normal range for fresh fish, whereas in mahi-mahi significantly higher values were determined which was not correlated with quality deteriorations. TVB-N values in all investigated samples were low and indicate a sufficient fish freshness of the used raw material. The TVC of different mahi-mahi and emperor sea bream fillets indicated a good to sufficient microbiological status.

Conclusion: Pleasant sensory properties, low microbiological charge and low fat contents of emperor sea bream and mahi-mahi lead to the conclusion that these exotic fish products are a valuable enrichment of fish products on the market.


Keywords


chemical composition, quality, microbiology, sensory assessment, exotic fish

Full Text:

PDF

References


Anderson R. C. and Wu W.-H. (2005). Analysis of Carbon Monoxide in Commercially Treated Tuna (Thunnus spp.) And Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus) by Gas Chromatography/ Mass Spectrometry. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53, 7019-7023

Antoine F.R., Wei C.I., Otwell W.S., Sims C.A., Littell R.C., Hogle A.D. and Marshall M.R. (2002). TVB-N Correlation with Odour Evaluation and Aerobic Plate Count in Mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). Journal of Food Science 67, 3210–3214

Antonacopoulos N. (1973). Lebensmittelchemisch - rechtliche Untersuchung und Beurteilung von Fischen und Fischerzeugnissen. In: Ludorff W. and Meyer W., editors. Fische und Fischerzeugnisse, Berlin and Hamburg, Germany: Paul Parey, 219

AOAC (2005). Method #968.06. Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th Edition. Gaithersburg, USA: AOAC International 4, 25

Chen H.C., Lee Y.C., Hwang D.F., Chiou T.K. and Tsai Y.H. (2011). Determination of Histamine in Mahi-mahi Fillets (Coryphaena hippurus) Implicated in a Food-borne Poisoning. Journal of Food Safety 31, 320–325

Connell J. J. (1995). Control of Fish Quality (4th Edition). Oxford 7 Fishing News Books

Dekkers E., Raghavan S., Kristinsson H. and Marshall R. M. (2011). Oxidative Stability of Mahi-mahi Red Muscle Dipped in Tilapia Protein Hydrolysates. Food Chemistry 124, 640–645

Drake S.L., Drake M.A., Daniels H.V. and Yates M.D. (2006). Sensory Properties of Wild and Aquacultured Southern Flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma). Journal of Sensory Studies 21, 218-227

EU (2013). Commission Regulation (EU) No 1068/2013 of 30 October 2013 Amending Annex II to Regulation (EC) No 1333/2008 of the European Parliament and of the Council as Regards the Use of Diphosphates (E 450), Triphosphates (E 451) and Polyphosphates (E 452) in Wet Salted Fish. Official Journal of European Union. L289/58 (in the Version of 31 August 2013)

EU (2005). Commission Regulation (EC) No 2074/2005 of 5 December 2005 Laying Down Implementing Measures for Certain Products under Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and for the Organisation of Official Controls under Regulation (EC) No 854/2004 of the European Parliament and of the Council and Amending Regulation (EC) No 853/2004 and (EC) No 854/2004. Official Journal of European Union. L338, 27-59 (in the Version of 11 August 2011)

Farn C. and Sims G.C. (1986). Chemical Indices of Decomposition in Tuna. In: Seafood Quality Determination, Proceedings of an International Symposium (edited by Liston D.E. and Kramer, J.), Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier Science Publishers, 175-183

FishBase (2014), http://www.fishbase.org . Last accessed on June 3, 2014

Food Safety Authority of Ireland, Guidance Note 18 (2011): Validation of Product Shelf-Life, Revision 1, Dublin, ISBN I-904465-33-I, 16

Jeyasekaran G., Ganesan P., Jeya Shakila R., Maheswari K. and Sukumar D. (2004). Dry Ice as a Novel Chilling Medium along with Water Ice for Short-term Preservation of Fish Emperor Breams, Lethrinus (Lethrinus miniatus). Innovative Food Science and Emerging Technologies 5, 485– 493

Kaufmann A., Maden K., Leisser W., Matera M. and Gude T. (2005). Analysis of Polyphosphates in Fish and Shrimps Tissues by Two Different Ion Chromatography Methods: Implications on False-negative and -positive Findings. Food Additives and Contaminants 22 (11), 1073–1082

Karl H., Manthey-Karl M., Ostermeyer U., Lehmann I. and Wagner H. (2013). Nutritional Composition and Sensory Attributes of Alaskan Flatfishes Compared to Plaice (Pleuronectes platessa). International Journal of Food Science and Technology 48, 962–971

Karl H., Bekaert K., Berge J.-P., Cadun A., Duflos G., Poli B.M., Tejada M., Testi S. and Timm-Heinrich M. (2012). WEFTA Interlaboratory Comparison on Total Lipid Determination in Fishery Products Using the Smedes Method. Journal of AOAC International 95, 1-5

Karl, H., Äkesson, G., Etienne, M., Huidobro A., Luten, J., Mendes, R., Tejada, M. and Oehlenschläger, J., (2002). WEFTA Interlaboratory Comparison on Salt Determination in Fishery Products. Journal of Aquatic Food Product Technology 11, 215–228

LBFG (Lebensmittel- und Futtermittelgesetzbuch, German Food and Feed Code) (2008). Bestimmung des Gesamtphosphorgehaltes in Fleisch und Fleischerzeugnissen. Photometrisches Verfahren. 06.00/9. In: Amtliche Sammlung von Untersuchungsverfahren nach § 64 LBFG. Belin, Germany: Beuth-Verlag. Available at: http:// www.methodensammlung-bvl.de. Last accessed on November 22, 2013

Kim S.H., Price R.J., Morrissey M.T., Field K.G., Wei C.I. and An H. (2002). Histamine Production by Morganella morganii in Mackerel, Albacore, Mahi-mahi, and Salmon at Various Storage Temperatures. Journal of Food Science 67, 4

Kristinsson H., Danyali N. and Ua-Aangkoon S. (2007). Effect of Filtered Wood Smoke Treatment on Chemical and Microbial Changes in Mahi-mahi Fillets. Journal of Food Science C: Food Chemistry and Toxicology 72, 1

Liston J. (1982). Recent Advances in the Chemistry of Iced Fish Spoilage. In: Martin R.E., Flick G.J., Hebard C.E., Ward D.R., editors. Chemistry and Biochemistry of Marine Food Products. Westport, Conn., USA:Avi Publishing Co, 27-37

Max Rubner Institute (2013), Fisch in der Ernährung (in German) http://www.mri.bund.de/fileadmin/Veroeffentlichungen/Archiv/Weiteres/ern_fisch.pdf Last accessed on May 25, 2014

Miller E.L., Bombo A.P., Barlow S.M. and Sheridan B. (2007). Repeatability and Reproducibility of Determination of the Nitrogen Content of Fishmeal by the Combustion (Dumas) Method and Comparison with the Kjeldahl Method: Interlaboratory Study. Journal of AOAC International 90, 6-20

Shakila R. J., Vijayalakshmi K. and Jeyasekaran G. (2003). Changes in Histamine and Volatile Amines in Six Commercially Important Species of Fish of the Thoothukkudi Coast of Tamil Nadu, India, Stored at Ambient Temperature. Food Chemistry 82, 347–352

Smedes F. (1999). Determination of Total Lipid Using Non-chlorinated Solvents. Analyst 124, 1711-1718

Wheeler J.D. and Hebard C.E., editors (1981). Seafood Products: Teacher Resource Guide. VII-B: Fish and Seafood — Composition and Nutritional Aspects. Food Science and Technology Department. Seafood Processing Research and Extension Unit. Virginia Tech. P.O Box 369. Hampton, VA 23669. http://nsgl.gso.uri.edu/vpi/vpie81001/vpie81001_part5.pdf. Last accessed on July 18, 2014




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/buasvmcn-fst:10277

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.





University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
3-5 Manastur St., 400372 Cluj-Napoca
Romania
Tel: +40-264-596.384 | Fax: +40-264-593.792 
biroupublicatii@usamvcluj.ro