Preliminary Discrimination of Cheese Adulteration by FT-IR Spectroscopy

Lucian Cuibus, Rubén Maggio, Vlad Mureșan, Zorița Diaconeasa, Florinela Fetea, Carmen Socaciu


The present work describes a preliminary study to compare some traditional Romanian cheeses and adulterated cheeses using Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). For PLS model calibration (6 concentration levels) and validation (5 concentration levels) sets were prepared from commercial Dalia Cheese from different manufacturers by spiking it with palm oil at concentrations ranging 2-50 % and 5-40 %, respectively. Fifteen Dalia Cheese were evaluated as external set. The spectra of each sample, after homogenization, were acquired in triplicate using a FTIR Shimatsu Prestige 21 Spectrophotometer, with a horizontal diamond ATR accessory in the MIR region 4000-600 cm-1. Statistical methods as PLS were applied using MVC1 routines written for Matlab R2010a. As first step the optimal condition for PLS model were obtained using cross-validation on the Calibration set. Spectral region in 3873-652 cm-1, and 3 PLS-factors were stated as the best conditions and showed an R2 value of 0.9338 and a relative error in the calibration of 17.2%. Then validation set was evaluated, obtaining good recovery rates (108%) and acceptable dispersion of the data (20%). The curve of actual vs. predicted values shows slope near to 1 and origin close to 0, with an R2 of 0.9695. When the external sample set was evaluated, samples F19, F21, F22 and F24, showed detectable levels of palm fats. The results proved that FTIR-PLS is a reliable non-destructive technique for a rapid quantification the level of adulteration in cheese.  The spectroscopic methods could assist the quality control authority, traders and the producers to discriminate the adulterated cheeses with palm oil.


ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, cheese adulteration, cheese quality, food authenticity, PLS, cheese, MIR

Full Text:



Barile, D., Coïsson JD, Arlorio, M., Rinaldi, M. (2005). Food Control in Press

Cassoli, L. D., Sartori, B., & Machado, P. F. (2011). Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia The use of the Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy to determine adulterants in raw milk, 2591–2596.

Cevoli, C., Gori, A., Nocetti, M., Cuibus, L., Caboni, M. F., & Fabbri, A. (2013). FT-NIR and FT-MIR spectroscopy to discriminate competitors, non compliance and compliance grated Parmigiano Reggiano cheese. Food Research International, 52(1), 214–220.

Dennis, M. (1998). Recent developments in food authentication. Ana- lyst (Lond.) 123:151R–156R.

European Union. (2001). EC 213/2001: Methods for the analysis and quality evaluation of milk and milk products. Off. J. L 44:37/1–L37/99.

Gori, A., Maggio, R. M., Cerretani, L., Nocetti, M., & Caboni, M. F. (2012). Discrimination of grated cheeses by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy coupled with chemometric techniques. International Dairy Journal, 23(2), 115–120.

Gurdeniz, G., & Ozen, B. (2009). Detection of adulteration of extra-virgin olive oil by chemometric analysis of mid-infrared spectral data. Food Chemistry, 116(2), 519–525.

Karoui, R., Dufour, E., Pillonel, L., Schaller, E., Picque, D., & Cattenoz, T. (2005). The potential of combined infrared andfluorescence spectroscopies as a method of determination of the geographic origin of Emmental cheeses.International Dairy Journal, 15, 287e298.

Karoui, R. and De Baerdemaeker, J. (2007). A review of the analytical methods coupled with chemometric tools for the determination of the quality and identity of dairy products. Food Chemistry 102: 621–640.

Koca, N., Kocaoglu-Vurma, N.A., Harper, W.J., Rodriguez-Saona, L.E. (2010). Application of temperature-controlled attenuated total reflectance-mid-infrared (ATR-MIR) spectroscopy for rapid estimation of butter adulteration. Food Chemistry 121:778–782

Lerma-García, M. J., Gori, A., Cerretani, L., Simó-Alfonso, E. F., & Caboni, M. F. (2010). Classification of Pecorino cheeses produced in Italy according to their ripening time and manufacturing technique using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.Journal of Dairy Science, 93, 4490-4496.

Maggio, R. M., Kaufman, T. S., Carlo, M. Del, Cerretani, L., Bendini, A., Cichelli, A., & Compagnone, D. (2009). Monitoring of fatty acid composition in virgin olive oil by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy coupled with partial least squares. Food Chemistry, 114(4): 1549–1554

Maudet, C., and P. Taberlet. (2001). Detection of cows’ milk in goat’s cheeses inferred from mitochondrial DNA polymorphism. Journal of Dairy Research. 68:229–235.

Nicolaou, N., Xu, Y. and R. Goodacre. (2010) Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and multivariate analysis for the detection and quantification of different milk species. Journal of Dairy Science Vol. 93 No. 12

Nurrulhidayah, A.F., Che Man, Y.B., Rohman, A., Amin, I., Shuhaimi, M. and Khatib, A. (2013). Authentication analysis of butter from beef fat using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy coupled with chemometrics. International Food Research Journal 20(3): 1383-1388

Prabhakar, V., Kocaoglu-Vurma, N., Harper, J., & Rodriguez-Saona, L. (2011). Classification of swiss cheese starter and adjunct cultures using Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. Journal of Dairy Science, 94, 4374–4382.

Reid, L. M., O’Donnell, C. P. O. and Downey, G. (2006). Recent technological advances for the determination of food authenticity. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 17, 344–353

Rodríguez-Otero, J.L., Hermida, M. and Cepeda C. (1995). Determination of fat, protein, and total solids in cheese by near-infrared spectroscopy. Journal of AOAC International 78: 802–806

Rodriguez-Saona, L. E., & Allendorf, M. E. (2011). Use of FTIR for rapid authentication and detection of adulteration of food. Annual Review of Food Science and Technology, 2, 467–483.

Schmitt, J., Flemming, H. C. (1998). FTIR-spectroscopy in microbial and material analysis. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 41, 1–11.

Sorensen, L.K. and Jepsen R. (1998). Assessment of sensory properties of cheese by near-infrared spectroscopy. International Dairy Journal 8:863–871.

Sorensen, L.K. and Jepsen, R. (1998). Comparison of near infrared spectroscopy techniques for determination of semi-hard cheese constituents Milchwissenschaft 53: 263–267.

Subramanian, A., Alvarez, V. B., Harper, W. J., & Rodriguez-Saona, L. E. (2011). Monitoring amino acids, organic acids, and ripening changes in Cheddar cheese using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.International Dairy Journal, 21, 434e440.

Tay, A., Singh, R. K., Krishnan, S. S., & Gore, J. P. (2002). Authentication of olive oil adulterated with vegetable oils using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 35: 99–103.

Wittrup, C.H. and Norgaard, L. (1998). Rapid near infrared spectroscopy screening of chemical parameters in semi-hard cheese using chemometric. Journal of Dairy Science 81: 1803–1809.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine
3-5 Manastur St., 400372 Cluj-Napoca
Tel: +40-264-596.384 | Fax: +40-264-593.792