Quantification of Anethole in Fennel and Anise Essential Oils using Gas Chromatography and 1H-NMR-Spectroscopy

Denisa Eglantina DUȚĂ, Alina CULEȚU, Mioara NEGOIȚĂ, Valentin Ionescu

Abstract


Nine essential oils from fennel (seeds and herbs) and anise (seeds) from different origins were analysed for density, refractive index and for a complete composition through GC-MS and 1H-NMR-spectroscopy. Anethole was the main compound identified in fennel and anise essential oils. Anethole content varied between 30 – 90% in fennel oils and between 80 – 99% in anise oils; anethole is often used as flavouring substance in foods with a good antimicrobial activity also. A positive correlation was found between anethole content determined by GC-MS and 1H-NMR (r = 0.8567 for fennel oils and r = 0.6986 for anise oils). The results showed different levels of anethole in oils (values ranged between 30.66 % and 99.24 %). Electronic nose was a very good and rapid method for discrimination of essential oils based on PCA (Principal Component Analysis) with discrimination index above 90 for both essential oils.

Keywords


anethol; anise oil; fennel oil; GC-MS; NMR spectroscopy.

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/buasvmcn-fst:2019.0020

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