New Varieties of Topinambour (Helianthus tuberosus) Obtained at V.R.D.S. Buzau

Costel Vinatoru, Bianca Zamfir, Camelia Bratu

Abstract


Introduction: It is not known precisely the introduction of this species in our country, most research indicates XVI century but there are opinions that consider that this species is present in our country since the Dacian times.Until now has not been cultivated on a large area and it has not been obtained a distinct biological Romanian variety. It can be said that this species has been neglected until now as vegetable crop. This crop gives a high yield in tubers, it grows better in poor soils than most crops, and it is resistant to pests and common plant diseases as well as to cold temperatures (Kosaric, N.,1994). Selection for high yield, inulin content and other economically important traits are useful for improving this crop (Mullin, W. J.,1994). Unlike most crops that store carbon as starch, a polymer of glucose, in the Jerusalem artichoke carbon is stored as inulin, a fructose polymer (Kays, 2007).

Aims: The research started in 1996, aimed to obtain  biological stabilized and genetically distinct varieties with reduced variability of the main characters, developing specific technology culture in accordance with DUS and rehabilitation of species through the promotion and expansion as vegetable crops in order to revaluate its many uses.

Materials and Methods: It was evaluated the local genetic heritage in this species, representing valuable germplasm base composed of 24 genotypes. After purchasing the basic biological material, the evaluated genotypes were collected and 3 of them were detained as progeny. The breeding method used was the clonal selection.

Results: The researches were completed with a valuable germplasm collection in this species, were obtained three varieties with distinct characteristics: L1, which shows pink-brown tubers with a tubers yield of over 3.8 kg / plant and a vegetative mass with a height of 2,5 m, L2, white tuber variety with an yield potential of 3.4 kg / plant and a rich vegetative mass with a height of over 2.8 m and L3 that shows pink tubers with an average yield of 2.4 kg / plant and an average plant height of 0.8 m.

Conclusion: The research ended with the evaluation of a valuable germplasm collection. Three stabilized genetically varieties with distinct phenotypic characteristics were obtained. Among them, L1 was patented and the other two will be submitted in 2017. It was developed a specific technology for each variety and has been promotional offered improved material to growers with the aim of extending these varieties as vegetable crops.

References

  1. Kays, Stanley J., and Stephen F. Nottingham. Biology and chemistry of Jerusalem artichoke: Helianthus tuberosus L. CRC press, 2007.
  2. 2. Kosaric, N., et al. "The Jerusalem artichoke as an agricultural crop." Biomass5.1 (1984): 1-36.
  3. 3. Mullin, W. J., et al. "The macronutrient content of fractions from Jerusalem artichoke tubers (Helianthus tuberosus)." Food chemistry 51.3 (1994): 263-269.

Keywords


breeding, clonal selection, phenotype, inulin, tubers

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/buasvmcn-hort:12086


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