The In Situ and Ex Situ Conservation of Pepper Landraces (Capsicum annuum L.)

Aurel Maxim, Daniel Bontea, Antonia Odagiu, Lucia Mihălescu, Vasile Roman

Abstract


The general objective of our research, targets the agrobiodiversity conservation and the diminishing of genetic erosion on crops. The specific objectives of the research consist in the collection, the identification and the pepper seed production. The resulted seed was intended both in on farm conservation and also in ex situ conservation in the USAMV Cluj-Napoca’s genebank. In the genebank every sample of seed is accompanied by the passport descriptors and the characterization descriptors. They were collected and cultivated 18 landraces of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), two of wich were bell pepper (C.annuum L. ssp.annuum convar. grossum (L.) var. Filov.  Tetragonum Miller), two of sweet pepper (C. annuum L. ssp. annuum convar. grossum (L.) Filov. var. grossum), two of cayenne papper (C. annuum L. sp. annuum convar. longum (DC.) Terp.) și and 12 landraces of hot pepper (C. annuum L. sp. Annuum convar.  microcarpum Filov.). The seed was obtained from nine Romanian counties, seven being from Transylvania. During the vegetation period observations and measurements have been made to determine the characterization and agronomic morphology of landraces. IPGRI (Institute for Plant Genetic Resources) descriptors have been used. In this article eight morphological features are described (plant’s habitus, colour and leaves dimension, colour and flowers position on the plant, shape and colour of the fruits (mature or immature), respectively seven agronomic aspects (plant height, fruits average weight (g), fruits dimensions (cm), average production per plant, fruits number per plant, resistance to diseases and pests, taste qualities).


Keywords


agrobiodiversity, genetic erosion, ex situ conservation, on farm conservation, landraces, seed, gardens.

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