The Influence of Cytoplasmic Diversification on some Plant Traits in Maize (Zea Mays)

Roxana Călugăr, Ioan Rotar, Voichița Haș, Andrei Varga, Carmen Vana, Ana Copândean, Ionuț Racz, Ioan Haș

Abstract


Cytoplasmic male sterility discovery has led to new studies regarding the cytoplasmic diversification in maize and the importance of genetic basis improvement. Cytoplasmic uniformity can cause the appearance of new sensibility to pests and diseases, the same as the Helminthosporium maydis race T epidemic back in 1969-1970. Given the risk raised by the use of a single type of cytoplasm, at the Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda it was started the cytoline program in order to diversify the genetic basis, but also to clarify if the cytoplasm has any influence on some maize traits, and how they are inherited in hybrids. On this paper we focused on some plant traits: plant height, ear height, number of leaves, leaf length and leaf width. Using the backcross 10 times, the nucleus of five inbred lines (TC 209, TC 316, TC 243, TB 367 and D 105) was transferred into four different cytoplasm (T 248, TB 329, TC 177 and TC 221). The five original inbred lines and the 20 cytolines obtained were crossed with four testers: TA 367, TC 344, TC 385A and TE 356. Biometrics were performed in two experimental years (2013 and 2014) on the resulting hybrids. Using a different cytoplasm, compared to the original one, led to significant differences regarding the cob height, leaf length and leaf area. For some hybrids using maternal cytoline caused differences up to 12 cm for plant height, 12.8 cm for cob height, 3.9 cm for leaf length, and 0.7 cm for leaf width, when compared to the hybrid using the original maternal inbred line. Using cytolines as maternal genotype caused significant positive or negative differences for all analyzed traits. Some cytoplasm had a significant influence for all hybrids, but for some, the significant differences were recorded due to the interaction between the cytoplasm, nucleus and tester.


Keywords


cytoplasm, cytoline, maize, nucleus.

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