nfluence of Soil Tillage System on Soil Moisture and Temperature, Maize and Soybean Production

Teodor Rusu, Ileana Bogdan, Felicia Cheţan, Lech Wojciech Szajdak, Paula Ioana Moraru, Adrian Ioan Pop, Alina Şimon, Valeria Deac

Abstract


Recent research at a national and international level in the field of agrotechnics has as a main objective the
optimization of soil functions and the preserve of soil and water resources by applying systems of conservative agriculture,
securing the crop productivity under efficiency and efficacy conditions. The aim of the paper is to know the impact the
soil tillage system and graduation of quantity of vegetal debris have upon the soil moisture and temperature as well as
upon the production of maize and soybean crop. The research was made in the experimental field organized at the
Agricultural Research and Development Station Turda (ARDS Turda). The experience was placed on a chernozem, during
2015-2018, trifactor type. The rotation is soybean-wheat-maize, the results presented in the paper were obtained in the
agricultural year 2015-2016, in the maize crop, and 2017-2018 in the soybean crop. The experimental factors established
were: Factor A – Crop: a
1
 – soybean; a
2
 – wheat; a
3
 – maize; Factor B – Soil tillage system: b
1
 – conventional system:
reverse plough + disk 2x + sowed + fertilized (witness); b
2
 – conservative system with minimum tillage: chisel + rotary
harrow + sowed + fertilized; b
3
 – conservative system with direct sowing (sowed – fertilized – herbicides); Factor C –
Vegetal debris: c
1
 – 60% (3 t/ha); c
2
 – 80% (4 t/ha); c
3
 – 100% (5 t/ha). The soil temperature was influenced a little by
the soil tillage system, but the influence is significant in the case of vegetal debris. The moisture results show significant
differences, ensured statistically in the case of direct sowing, as the quantity of vegetal debris increases. The soil moisture
was higher when the crops were sowed and during the first phases of vegetation, then the differences decreased in time.
Maize and soybean reacted better to soil loosening, mobilizing the soil fertility and mineralization of nutritive substances,
ensuring a higher production in the conventional tillage system. The aim of applying conservative agricultural practices
is to accumulate, preserve and value efficiently the water coming from rainfall in order to protect the soil and to avoid
desertification.

Keywords


conservative agriculture, temperature, soil moisture, production.

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