The Long-Term Effect of the Soil Tillage Systems, Fertilization and Rotation Soybean-Winter Wheat-Maize on Certain Soil Attributes and Yields Specific to Different Pedoclimatic Conditions, in Turda Area

Felicia Cheţan, Cornel Cheţan

Abstract


The research followed by the application of the various soil cultivation systems has a considerable popularity in
the world. Of course, the motivation for the attention of the soil tillage systems can be widely debated, however it also
includes the conservation of soil water resources as well as the reduction of labor costs and, implicitly, the growth of
economies. The main objective is still to identify an optimal balance between the systems and their effects. After 11 years
of experimentation at ARDS Turda, changes in soil pH, from low acid (0-20 cm) and neutral (20-40 cm) to low alkaline
in all experimental variants and on the both depth (7.55-8.1), were recorded. In the case of the classical system (CS) there
is a slight reduction of the humus content in the surface layer of the soil 0-20 cm at both levels of fertilization (2.87-2.58),
but instead there are increases on the deeper layers of  20-40 cm (2.33 in the variant with additional fertilization). In the
MT system there is a slight increase of total N in the 0-20 cm layer in both fertilization variants (0.275 with basic
fertilization and 0.175 with additional fertilization). Increases content in phosphorus in the MT system, from a weak
content of 5 ppm and 9 ppm in 2007 to low content (0-20 cm) and very good on the 20-40 cm depth in 2017.There is an
increase in the K content, especially in the arable layer of 0-20 cm in the MT system compared to CS. The average yields
recorded in soybean, winter wheat and maize crops had lower values especially in the conservative system (NT and MT)
on the first years.

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