Reducing Energy Consumption and Soil Conservation by Tillage System

Paula MORARU, Teodor RUSU, Laura PAULETTE, Mihai BUTA, Ioan OROIAN, Antonia ODAGIU, Doina CLAPA, Smaranda COSMA

Abstract


The minimum tillage and no-tillage systems represent alternatives to the conventional system of soil tillage, due to their conservation effects on soil features and to the assured productions, maize: 96 - 98.1% at minimum tillage and 99.8% at no-tillage, soybean: 102.9 -111.9% at minimum tillage and 117.2% at no-tillage, wheat: 93.4 - 96.8% at minimum tillage and 106.9% at no-tillage, as compared to the conventional system. Correct choice of the right soil tillage system for the crops in rotation help reduce energy consumption, thus maize: 97.3 - 97.9% at minimum tillage and 91.3% at no-tillage, soybean: 98.6 - 98.2% at minimum tillage and 92.8% at no-tillage, wheat: 97.4 - 98% at minimum tillage and 91.6% at no-tillage. Energy efficiency is in relation to reductions in energy savings, but also with efficiency and impact on the tillage system on the cultivated plant. For all crops in rotation, energy efficiency (energy produced from 1 MJ consumed) was the best in no-tillage and 10.44 MJ ha-1 at maize, 6.49 MJ ha-1 at soybean, 5.66 MJ ha-1 at wheat. Energy-efficient agricultural system: the energy consumed-energy produced-energy yield, necessarily have to be supplemented by soil energy efficiency, with the conservative effect of the agricultural system. Only then the agricultural system will be sustainable, durable in agronomic, economic and ecological terms. The implementation of minimum and no-tillage soil systems have increased the organic matter content from 2 to 7.6% and water stabile aggregate content from 5.6 to 9.6%, at 0 - 30 cm depth, as compared to the conventional system. While the soil fertility and the wet aggregate stability have initially been low, the effect of conservation practices on the soil characteristics led to a positive impact on the water permeability in the soil. Availability of soil moisture during the crop growth led to a better plant watering condition. Subsequent release of conserved soil water regulated proper plant water condition and soil structure.


Keywords


no-tillage, minimum tillage, yield, energy efficiency, soil conservation.

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