Considerations Regarding Soil Tilling for the Spring Wheat Culture in the Jucu, Cluj County Soil Conditions

Sorin Ionel BRÄ‚ILEANU, Rozalia Rodica KADAR, Matei Marcel DUDA, Tincuța Marta GOCAN, Ionuț RACZ

Abstract


Agriculture involves more than cultivating and breeding animals for food consumption. The main occupation of agriculturists is producing raw materials for food. For this purpose, they use traditional methods tested in time, which they have associated with the modern science and technology in order to offer high quality products at an affordable price. The studies made in order to elaborate the research project entitled “Research concerning the influence of the variety, sowing density and fertilization on the spring wheat production and quality in the Transylvanian plain conditions†were carried out in the experimental field of the USAMV Cluj-Napoca from Jucu, Cluj County. For the agricultural practice, the highest interest resides in the air and soil temperature and the precipitations. For the spring wheat plants, the optimum temperature for growth and development varies between 8 and 100C until haulm elongation, between 14 - 180C for the period of haulm elongation and 16 - 180C for earing. The year 2010 was characterized by an annual average temperature of 11.220C, the highest average being recorded in July (22.360C), and the lowest in January (-2.160C). The year 2010 summed an amount of precipitation of 695.9 mm. The lowest was recorded in April, 2.70 mm. For soil preparation in order to sow spring wheat we have chosen, in the minimal tillage system with preparation of the seedbed, the minimal tilling system with rotary harrows, which represents the most used option in the east and the south-east of Europe. The rotary harrow is a combined machine, operated from the tractor, for achieving a rotation movement of its active components, followed by the rollers, horizontally or vertically. Behind it the field is chopped, on a depth of 10 - 18 cm, levelled and placed. For the minimal tillage system, mechanical tillage of culture maintenance is carried out following the same agro-technical rules and requirements as with the conventional soil tilling system. In the agricultural practice, the specialists must know the soil and climate conditions of their area of activity, in order to choose the cultures or species which can better adapt to the climatic factors of the respective area. Although the temperatures and the precipitations in the field preparation period recorded values higher than the annual average, these facts didn`t prevent us from preparing the seedbed in order to carry out spring wheat sowing on time and in the optimum conditions, in Jucu.Considerations Regarding Soil Tilling for the Spring Wheat Culture in the Jucu, Cluj County Soil Conditions

Keywords


soil, climate, spring wheat, production, quality

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