Epidemiological, Clinical and Pathological Features in Anticoagulant Rodenticide Toxicosis in Dogs: 66 Cases (2010-2015)

Andras Laszlo Nagy, Alexandru Flaviu Tăbăran, Roland Blaj, Cornel Cătoi, Alexandra Pop, Adrian Florin Gal, Adrian Oros

Abstract


Anticoagulant rodenticides are widely used pesticides globally. They act by inhibiting vitamin K epoxide reductase in the liver, decreasing the synthesis of clotting factors II, VII, IX, and X. Sixty six cases of anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis were found during a retrospective study conducted at the Veterinary Hospital and the Pathology Department of the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Cluj-Napoca, in a period between January 2010 and June 2015.The inclusion criteria were: clinical signs of exposure, coagulation testing result and typical pathological findings characteristic for bleeding syndrome. History, clinical and pathological data were collected from the medical records of the dogs presented to our units. In the present study, 66 cases of anticoagulant toxicosis in dogs were described, the animals ranging in age from 2 months to 12 years. 31 dogs were male and 35 female. Two cases followed exposure to brodifacoum, 4 cases exposure to warfarin and in the other cases the type of anticoagulant was unknown. The most common clinical signs were dyspnea, lethargy, weakness, anemia/palor, melena, spontaneous subcutaneous and muscular hematoma, sublingual hematoma and ecchymoses. The most important lesions were represented by haemothorax, thymic hematoma in juvenile dogs, subcutaneous and muscular hematomas, hemoperitoneum, severe anemia, and ecchymotic hemorrhages in different tissues. In cases were coagulation testing was performed, prolonged partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time and coagulation time were recorded. Anticoagulant rodenticide toxicosis is frequently found in our region, the most important diagnostic tools being coagulation testing and toxicological exam.


Keywords


coagulopathy, retrospective, toxicology

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/buasvmcn-vm:11480




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