Antifreeze Acute Intoxication: Hemodialysis in Two German Sheppard Dogs

Bogdan Alexandru Vițălaru, Ștefăniță Bogdan Bălășcău

Abstract


Hemodialysis (HD) is a highly effective therapeutic method employed to remove toxic by-products and metabolites from the body when this task can no longer be performed by the kidneys that are either permanently damaged, as in chronic kidney failure, or need time and proper treatment to recover from other diseases of the kidney itself or pathologies that may affect the renal function as they progress.Hemodialysis uses the dialyzer or “artificial kidney†which is the basis for renal replacement extracorporeal therapy. Within the dialyzer, blood and dialysate are separated by a semi permeable membrane, which allows the free passage of water and small molecules. The movement of molecules through the membrane is mainly driven by two forces: diffusion and convection.The study describes the evolution and follows the dynamic of the biomarkers in 2 dogs suffering from kidney failure, subsequent to acute intoxication with antifreeze. Both subjects were admitted in our Centre 28 hours after ingestion and after i.v. drip of commercial alcohol.Hemodialysis was performed in two dogs, brother and sister, six months of age, using a BBraun Dialog+ hemodialysis machine. Blood samples were taken from each dog before and after the procedure and then twice in the next ten days, in order to monitor the ionogram, creatinine and BUN levels. Also, before starting the procedure, the patients underwent an ultrasound examination to evaluate the kidneys and to exclude other problems that would prevent this treatment. We have also collected urine in order to perform an accurate urine sediment analysis. Both patients exhibited a full recovery after 5 hemodialysis sessions, showing that the procedure was able to remove the toxins and to restore the renal function, a fact also proved by the levels of metabolites involved in the clinical evolution.Blood samples collected twice in the next 10 days showed a complete recovery of the renal function in both patients.Hemodialysis is highly effective in the removal of ethylene glycol and its metabolites from the blood. Hemodialysis also has the added benefit of correcting other metabolic disturbances or of supporting deteriorate kidney function.

 


Keywords


hemodialysis, dogs, intoxication, kidney, peritoneal

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/buasvmcn-vm:11636




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