Detecting Antibiotic Residues Among Sheep Milk using YCT, DDA, and Acidification Method in Erbil city, Kurdistan Region, Iraq



Presence of antibiotic residues in milk is increasingly recognized as a global health issue owing to associated health risks and emergence of antibiotic resistant bacteria. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of antibiotic residues in sheep raw milk sold in Erbil governorate. The screening tests performed were; yoghurt culture, acidification, and disc diffusion tests. Randomly selected farms and sale points within the city were sampled. Out of 450 collected samples, 15.8% and 14.4% of them contained antibiotic residues according to yoghurt culture and disc diffusion tests, respectively. However, acidification test showed insignificant (P = 0.384) slightly higher prevalence (17.3%). Minor association was found between increase of residue prevalence and progress of summer-autumn months. Raising awareness among farmers and sale workers regarding withdrawal periods and risks of antibiotic residues are highly recommended to mitigate the health issues associated with consumption of contaminated milk.


screening; YCT; DDA; acidification; Kurdistan region; Erbil; Iraq.

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