INCIDENCE, CONTROL AND PROBLEMATIC ISSUES RELATED TO BRUCELLOSIS IN THE MAGHREB

Mohamed Douifi, Nabila Boukhalfa, Ahcène Hakèm

Abstract


Brucellosis, although eradicated in the developed countries, is still endemic in low income countries with serious consequences for human health and livestock production. In this study, we examine the evidence and knowledge about brucellosis in humans and domestic ruminants in the Maghreb countries over the last decade using a systematic review approach. Our study reveals that the Maghreb countries still record the highest brucellosis incidence rate in the world in both human and animal populations. The overall herd and individual seroprevalence of brucellosis in small ruminants is estimated at 15.11% and 4.31% for sheep and 20, 83%, 4.18% for goats, respectively. Brucellosis in cattle revealed a herd and individual seroprevalence of 17% and 6.60%, respectively. In humans, the annual incidence rate per million populations is evaluated at 143.65 cases. This data is much more underestimated due to passive collection and under-reporting cases. Control measures, including vaccination and testing and slaughter measures implemented for decades, have not yet made real incidence mitigation. Husbandry systems related to mixed species breeding and animal movement as well as weak breeders’ involvement make brucellosis difficult to eradicate. Given the low financial resources of these countries and the complexity of test and slaughter programs, the application of vaccination for all livestock is the best choice for decreasing the disease burden. 

 


Keywords


brucellosis, Maghreb, livestock, human, incidence, control

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.15835/agrisp.v118i1-2.14150



Copyright (c) 2021 Mohamed Douifi, Nabila Boukhalfa, Ahcène Hakèm

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