Research Regarding the Influence of Folliar Fertilization on Plant Assimilation, Grain Yield and Quality of Wheat, in the Transylvanian Field Conditions
AbstractThe researches were carried out during the 2016-2017 vegetation period using the wheat variety Andrada and the perspective line T. 123-11 created at ARDS Turda, which were treated with 3 types of foliar fertilizers: Folimax Gold (V2 -2 treatments, V3-3 treatments) Folimax Oleo (V4-2 treatments and V5-3 treatments) and Microfert U (V6-3 treatments) applied in two and three treatments in different phenophases of crop development. The measurements on the assimilation (An = μmol CO2 m-2s-1) and leaf evapotranspiration (Evap- mmol H2O m-2s-1) were performed on a stindard leaf, 5 days after the last foliar fertilizer treatment in June, for each variant, from the 3 reps. The application of nitrogen foliar fertilizers resulted in the increase of the leaf surface, the nitrogen content of the leaves, increasing net assimilation for all variants, evapotranspiration and production. Andrada wheat variety advanced a higher oscillation of net assimilation (An) (from 28.5-32.7 μmol CO2m-2s-1), higher evapotranspiration (Evap) (1.97-2.33 mmol H2O m-2s-1) and the production was over 7300 kg/ha in foliar fertilized variants in all three vegetation phenophases. The perspective line T. 123-11 recorded slightly lower assimilation values (An) than Andrada wheat, being more clustered (from 30-31.7 μmol CO2 m-2s-1) and evapotranspiration (1.60-1.90 mmol of H2O m-2s-1) and also productions of more than 8100 kg/ha in 3 foliar fertilization variants, using the foliar fertilizer more efficiently and water in tissues. The highest quality indices were obtained with 3 foliar fertilization variants, obtaining values between 10.9 and 11.3% for proteins, for gluten between 21.3 and 21.6% and for the Zeleny 30.8 and 34.1% for Andrada lower than T. 123-11 with protein values between 11.7 and 14.0 % and gluten content of 23.4 and 28.3%, respectively the Zeleny index from 40.0 to 54.4%.
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