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Submission Preparation Checklist

As part of the submission process, authors are required to check off their submission's compliance with all of the following items, and submissions may be returned to authors that do not adhere to these guidelines.
  • The submission has not been previously published, nor is it before another journal for consideration (or an explanation has been provided in Comments to the Editor).
  • The submission file is in OpenOffice, Microsoft Word, or RTF document file format.
  • Where available, URLs for the references have been provided.
  • The text is single-spaced; uses a 12-point font; employs italics, rather than underlining (except with URL addresses); and all illustrations, figures, and tables are placed within the text at the appropriate points, rather than at the end.
  • The text adheres to the stylistic and bibliographic requirements outlined in the Author Guidelines.

Author Guidelines

Author Guidelines

for the elaboration of the papers for
Print ISSN 0255-965X; Electronic ISSN 1842-4309
(see ‘
Model‘ – Submission Preparation Checklist)

Important: Authors must provide a COVER LETTER, which will be inserted as the first page of manuscript, including:

  • details of all the authors (first name, last name, affiliation and email) and the corresponding author must be indicated;
  • name and contact details (affiliations, emails) of 5 potential reviewers, from different universities / institutions / countries than author’s.

The papers will be elaborated only in English with Word text editor (minimum 6.0 version) double spaced and the rows must be numbered in A4 format, 21 cm wide and 29.7 cm high.

Page setup (File/Page Setup) will be done with the margins (Margins): top 3.5 cm; bottom 2.5 cm; left 2.5 cm; right 2.5 cm. The final text form will comprise the next components.

The Model‘ (click to download as Word file) will be very useful for the authors, in order to facilitate the preparation of the manuscript.

The title of the paper will be written in TNR 12 Bold, center. Every word in the title must be capitalized except for short minor words (transition words) such as “a”, “an”, “and”, “as”, “at”, “by”, “for”, “from”, “if”, “in”, “into”, “on”, “or”, “of”, “the”, “to”, “with” etc.. Title should be clear, descriptive, relevant and concise, unambiguous, understandable to specialists in other fields, and must reflect the content of the article. Be specific, not general or vague. Do not use an abbreviation, except for common terminology. Make your title specific enough to describe the contents of the paper, but not so technical that only specialists will understand.

The names of the authors in TNR 12 , no capitals for first name (except initial letter) and capitals for surname (family name), leaving one row from the title. The first name, middle initial and last name of each author should appear. Please give full contact data for all co-authors; DO NOT FORGET to use capital letters for family name; include institutional data and e-mails for all co-authors.

The name of the institution and its postal address will be edited, one space row down, in TNR 12 not bolded and aligned left. After the e-mail of the person who wishes to receive the correspondence should be mentioned “(*corresponding author)”. The affiliation should be provided in the following order: university (institution) name, faculty/department name, number and street name, city, country; email address.

Please fill in all contact data (including e-mail address and capital editing of the family name, in the appropriate fields) when you submit online your article: ‘Step 3‘ in the submission process, ‘Enter metadata‘. All data in ‘Enter metadata’ fields and the manuscript have to be similar, for all co-authors.

The word Abstract will be edited in TNR 12 bold, leaving one row space from the address. The text will be edited not bolded. The summary (abstract) should be clear, descriptive, and self-explanatory, count 200-250 words and have a structured form, i.e. reflect the structure of article (background, material and methods, results, conclusion), but with no subdivisions, abbreviations, footnotes or references. The results should represent the most important part of the ‘Abstract’. Consequently, briefly explain here why you conducted the study (background), what question(s) you aimed to answer (objectives), how you performed the study (methods), what you found (results: major data, relationships), and your interpretation and main consequences of your findings (conclusions).

One row space down from the Abstract, the words Keywords should be written in TNR 12 and Italic. Five to seven words (not bolded) shall be mentioned, in alphabetical order, separated with comma, and they should not repeat the title of the manuscript.

Include ‘Abbreviations’ section after ‘Keywords’ if is necessary. Define all abbreviations used in the article, in alphabetical order, except those obvious to non-specialists. Without this section, if a long scientific term is frequently repeated, define its abbreviation at first use in the main body of the article (generally in the ‘Introduction’ or ‘Material and Methods’), and later apply it consistently.

The paper text will be edited in TNR 12, one row down from the ‘Keywords’. The text (paragraphs) will have a 1.25 cm tab and will be edited wholly in Justify alignment. The scientific content of the paper will be elaborated so as to be structured (if possible) comprising: ‘Introduction’, ‘Materials and Methods’, ‘Results and Discussions’, ‘Conclusions’, (‘Acknowledgment’), ‘References’. All these subtitles will be align left and typed in Times New Roman 12, Italics. There will be a row space above and under each subtitle (12 Font Size).

The papers will be written in an impersonal mode. On the other hand, it is possible to use first person, but it should be used sparingly. Please reserve the use of first person for things that you want to emphasize that “you” uniquely did.

Introduction. The ‘Introduction’ should explain the purpose of the work that was done and give the background needed to understand the study. Generally, every statement in ‘Introduction’ must be accomplished by a citation and the authors MUST give the background of the study; please use up to date references. The introduction summarizes the relevant literature so that the reader will understand the necessity of this study. Establish the context of the work accomplished by discussing the relevant primary research literature (with citations) and summarizing the current understanding of the problem you are investigating. State the purpose of the work in the form of the hypothesis, question, or problem you investigated. Start from more general issues and gradually focus on your research question(s). At the end of the introduction the authors must explain the aim of the study, respectively the research objectives. Briefly explain your rationale and approach and, whenever possible, the possible outcomes your study can reveal.

Materials and Methods. In ‘Materials and Methods’ give enough information to indicate how the research was conducted. Organize your presentation so that readers will understand the logical flow of the experiment(s); subheadings (italics, no bold) work well for this purpose, e.g. ‘Description of the study site’; ‘Biological material’; ‘Experimental OR sampling design’; ‘Experimental procedures OR Protocol for collecting data’; ‘Qualitative analysis AND/OR statistical procedures’ etc.). Well-known tests or procedures should be cited, but not described in detail. Describe any controls and the statistical procedures. Methods should be detailed enough to permit replication of the work. Avoid names of brands or commercial products, instead state clearly the active ingredient, chemical formula or purity. All factors that could have affected the results need to be considered. Make sure that the statistical analysis is appropriate.

Results and Discussion. Instead ‘Results and Discussion’, is preferably to use ‘Results’, and separately ‘Discussion’; these sections may be divided into subsections, each with a concise subheading. The ‘Results’ section contains the results of research given in detail, with tables and figures as needed. The ‘Discussions’ section should not contain a repeat of the results, but should explain the meaning of the findings and place the results in the context of other studies and concepts. Please provide reviews in support and contradiction of your results. There should be at least 10-30 relevant reviews, in order to compare the results with other researchers. Please also explain how the results relate to previous findings, whether in support, contradiction, or simply as added data. Authors should create headings that are brief, and relevant, to break “Results and Discussion” section into parts which will guide readers through the main points of their articles.

If tables or figures are included, the text of the title and the explanations will be edited in TNR 12 (see details presented in Model). Present carefully the figures and tables. Remember that “a figure is worth a thousand words”. Hence, illustrations, including figures and tables, are the most efficient way to present your results. Data presented in tables should not be duplicated in figures  (or vice versa).

Identify all tables, graphs, drawings and photographs with consecutive Arabic numerals (e.g., Fig. 1, 2, or 3; also for tables – Table 1, Table 2, etc.). For each table and figure please supply a caption (title), informative but not very long. Figures and/or photographs must be clear, with sharp focus and good density. Minimum size accepted for figures is 300 dpi.

Captions with table numbers must be placed before their associated tables. Citation of a table in the text is done as: Table 1, Tables 1 and 2, Tables 1, 2, 3. Avoid very large, complex Tables. Plan each table so that as much information as possible is in a clear, succinct caption. The legend must include all explanatory data, written justified. Captions with figure numbers must be placed after their associated figures. Citation of a figure in the text is done as: Fig. 1…. , Figs. 1 and 2, Figs. 1, 2, 3. If figures are grouped (e.g., several photographs or graphs, histograms etc., label each panel as A, B, C etc.), give a general title and describe each panel (A, B etc.) separately in the legend. Make sure tables and figures’ legends contain the necessary information so that a person can understand all data (each table or figure should be self-explanatory).

Mathematical equations should be typewritten, with subscripts and superscripts clearly shown. The equation should be typed using the Times New Roman font and Symbols, with Formula Editing. Spell out numbers one to ten, unless a measurement (e.g. four flowers, 5 g), but use 14 plots, 65 leaves, etc. Always use decimal points, not commas (0.4 not 0,4) and have a zero before a decimal point (0.5 not .5). Separate thousands with a comma (1,542 not 1 542, 1.542 or 1542). In vitro is spelled Italics.

Use standard SI units and abbreviations, respectively international system of dates (e.g.: s, min, h, d, µmol, m-2, µM, N, etc.), but use week, month, year, etc. in full text. Leave a space between a value and its unit(s) (eg: 5.6 g, 16 m, 18.6 °C).

The scientific denominations (genus, species etc.) will be typed in italics. Names of cultivars/varieties have to be included within single quotation ‘…’ (never double quotation marks) e.g. Malus domestica cv. ‘Golden Delicious’. Ranks above genus (e.g. family, order, class) receive one part names which are conventionally not written in italics.

Please note

  • Use ‘.’ (not ‘,’) for decimal point: 0.6 ± 0.2; Use ‘,’ for thousands: 1,230.4.
  • Use ‘-’ (not ‘–’) and without space: pp 27-36, 1998-2000, 4-6 min, 3-5 kg.
  • Use spaces between value and measure unit/mathematical symbols: 5 h, 5 kg, 5 m, 5 °C, C : D = 0.6 ± 0.2; p < 0.001.
  • Without space: 55°, 5% (not 55 °, 5 %).
  • Use ‘kg ha–1’ (not ‘kg/ha’).
  • Use degree sign ‘°’, with space after the temperature value: 5 °C (not 5oC).

In ‘Discussion‘ section, answer your research questions (stated at the end of the ‘Introduction’) and compare your new results with published data, as objectively as possible. Try to refer to the limitations of the study or how your results compare to another study which was published very recently. Discuss their limitations and highlight your main findings. Consider any findings that run contrary to your point of view. To support your position, use only methodologically sound evidence. The references in ‘Discussion’ should be also as in ‘Introduction’ up to date, relevant for the study. Please avoid citing inaccessible data; do not include unpublished data; provide relevant, timely, and accessible through ordinary library or academic databases. Although you may read some general background references, e.g. encyclopedias, books, manuals, etc. it is recommended to cite articles from recognized research journals, which reported specific results relevant to your study.

Conclusions. State only conclusions that are directly supported by the evidence and the implications of your findings, in one-paragraph. Conclusion section summarizes the results and major findings. Do not repeat in ‘Conclusion’ the same information as in previous sections. Discriminate what you present here by using only the data relevant to the conclusions drawn from the study (the most important findings / their significance / originality / recommendations / further research).

Acknowledgements. Quick thanks should be mention only to the fund providers or supporters. The recommended form is: “This work was supported by the …, grant number xxx”.

If no specific funding was provided, use the following sentence: “This research received no specific grant from any funding agency in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.”

The References should be typed after a one row space and will comprise only the quoted authors, in alphabetical and chronological order. The first author will have his surname followed by the initial(s) of their first name(s), and the other authors will have the same. Following the name(s) of the author(s), give the year of publication, in parentheses. Titles should be lowercase except for the first word, proper names, or certain foreign-language conventions. For non-English publications, give the original title followed by its translation into English in square brackets. Do not italicize publication titles. Give the volume number in Arabic numerals, followed by the issue number (if available) in Arabic numerals in parentheses. The pagination of the publication follows the volume number and/or issue number by a colon, and all closed up (no spaces): 96(5):645-648.

Check carefully if all references are mentioned in the text and vice versa (all references in the bibliographic list must correspond to in-text references and vice versa)! Check their accuracy / correctness! Use correct form of references, and please verify and write journals titles carefully. Use full titles of the journals, not abbreviation.

The references should be in alphabetical order. At the end of each reference, between the pages of articles cited, please use hyphen “-”, not dash! When there are eight or more authors, include the first 6 authors’ names followed by an ellipsis (…) and the final author’s name.

Specific examples of citations:

(Journal Articles)

Chun OK (2005). Daily consumption of phenolics and total antioxidant capacity from fruit and vegetables in the American diet. Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 85(2):1715-1724.

Harker FR, Marsh KB, Young H, Murray SH, Gunson FA, Walker SB (2002). Sensory interpretation of instrumental measurements: sweet and acid taste of apple fruit. Postharvest Biology and Technology 24:241-250.

Treutter D (2001). Biosynthesis of phenolic compounds and its regulation in apple. Plant Growth Regulation 34(1):71-89.

Usenik V (2004). Flavonols of leaves in relation to apple scab resistance. Acta Horticulturae 29(2):217-230.

Wolfe K (2003). Antioxidant activity of apple peels. Food Chemistry 51(3):609-614.

Adler PT, Carter ZHT, Dougherty L, Stanley Z, Schacht R, Robert M, … Smyth RG (2004). Nutrition facts and analysis for apple juice. Scientia Horticulturae 24:134-141.

*(When there are eight or more authors, include the first 6 authors’ names followed by an ellipsis (…) and the final author’s name)

*References in other languages than English:

Mozart A, Johannes SB (2009). Erfahrungen der Kursteilnehmerkrankenschwestern [Experiences of the student nurse]. Krankenpflegejournal 10:100-120.

(For non-English publications, give the original title followed by its translation into English in square brackets)

*References with doi:

Bostok M (2011). Apple crop. In: Frank E (Ed). Organic apples.  doi:10.3218/7853/8922.666.261.

Miura A (2012). The effect of foliar fertilization on apple. Horticulture Review Papers

Preece T, Student KJ, Lauer NH, Dovell D (2011). Comparative genome analysis provides insights into the evolution and adaptation of Pseudomonas syringae on apple. PLoS One 5(4), e10224.


Abbot MC (2010). Molecular cell biology. Academic Press (4th Ed), San Diego.

Donovan B, Clarke P (2011). Apple breeding. London, Rutledge.

(Book Chapter)

Bolder AG (2004). Apples. In: Janick J, Moore JN (Eds). Advances in fruit breeding. California Univ Press, West Lafayette, Indiana pp 3-37.

Smith S, Johnson T (2007). Health benefits of apple. In: Knippe J (Ed). Apple production. Frenchs Press NSW Pearson Education Australia pp 198-240.

(Proceedings Paper)

Brandell CJ, Morris DA, Taylor PL (2000). Advances in watermelon fertility. In: Moss JR, Stephen K, Seppard D (Eds). Proceedings of the Society for Horticultural Sciences 1999 Conference. Sydney: Springer pp 213-219.

Morris AJ, Hardy BK (2011). Organic and integrated fruit production systems. In: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Genotype-Ecotype Relationships. Springer, Dordrecht, Netherlands pp 112-134.

(Reports, web-sources)

Department of Agriculture (2012). German agricultural statistics for 2001. Germany Dept Agr Munchen. Retrieved 2012 February 12  from

PCADPP (2013). Presidential Commission on Agricultural Development Public Policy – The National Strategic Framework for sustainable development of the agro-alimentary sector (in Romanian). Retrieved 2013 May 12 from

(Thesis or Dissertation)

Pall V (2012). Contributions to decision support systems for the evaluation and use of agricultural lands. PhD Thesis, Corvinus Univ, Budapest.

Trumann JD (2014). Optimization of tissue culture techniques and Agrobacterium mediated transformation in wheat. MSc Dissertation, University of Edinburgh

Video presentation – OJS/Submission of articles:

Practical guide to prepare a scientific paper:

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