DNA Barcoding of Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) Cultivars in Duhok Province- Kurdistan Region/ Iraq Using 18S–28S rRNA and ITS Region

  • Dalal Y. Kh. SINJARE Scientific Research Center, College of Science, University of Duhok
  • Jaladet M. S. JUBRAEL Scientific Research Center, College of Science, University of Duhok
  • Abdulqader E. HUSSEIN Biology, College of Science, University of Duhok
Keywords: Pomegranate, DNA barcoding, 18S–28S rDNA, ITS region, PCR- RFLP, Sequence and SNP


Pomegranate is a tree species with a significant plant diversity, therefore molecular methods are necessary to define and verify approaches to recognize rapidly and correctly. This research looks at a genetic strategy for identifying pomegranate varieties in Duhok KRG. The approach is based on application of ITS region, PCR-RFLP, sequencing and SNP identification. For this study, 14 pomegranate accessions were taken from various regions, namely the Center of Duhok, Amedi, Akre, Zaxo, the South of Duhok, and Sulav. The PCR product of the 18S–28S rDNA intergenic spacer was 854bp, and the sequence analysis revealed a 99.94 percent similarity with other accession numbers in NCBI, demonstrating the use of the 18S–28S rDNA intergenic spacer for identifying and barcoding pomegranate cultivars. The PCR product of the ITS region was 700bp. This result was then employed for PCR-RFLP using two restriction enzymes namely RsaI GT/AC and HaeIII GG/CC which helped grouping as well as genetic similarities. This study Further involved sequencing examined genes were compared using the NCBI BLASTn tool and clustalo (Version 1.2.4) to determine gene location and SNP. According to this study, the result of PCR-RFLP revealed poor association between pomegranate physical morphology and genetic features, while SNP identification was identified between studied cultivars. Moreover, this result showed possible DNA barcoding of pomegranate cultivars under the study.