Influence of Training System on Growth and Yield of the Apple Cultivars (Malus domestica Borkh.)

  • Viorel MITRE University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3-5 Manastur Street, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Romania
  • Ioana MITRE University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3-5 Manastur Street, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Romania
  • Adriana F. SESTRAS Fruit Research Station, 3-5 Horticultorilor St., Cluj-Napoca 400454; Romania
  • Radu E. SESTRAS University of Agricultural Sciences and Veterinary Medicine, Faculty of Horticulture, 3-5 Manastur Street, Cluj-Napoca 400372, Romania

Abstract

Optimizing relationships between growth and fructification processes in apple, in order to obtain high and quality yields every year, is a permanent concern of the fruit research. The relationship between apple trees training systems in ‘Gala’, ‘Pinova’‚ ‘Topaz’ and ‘Florina’ apple cultivars, grafted on M9 rootstocks, in the first five years of cropping under the climatic conditions of Cluj-Napoca, Romania, was studied. In the experimental field some growth parameters (trunk crosssectional area, tree height, length of annual shoots) and fructification (yield in the end of first year of vegetation, cumulative yield for the first 5 years of fructification) were observed. The studied cultivars had a different behaviour, on hand, due to the genetic characteristic of each one and on the other hand, due to the training system of the trees. The results showed that Slender spindle and Vertical axis transmit much strongly growth than Solaxe and Tall spindle training systems. The biggest average trunk cross sectional area with the Tall spindle training system was obtained (33.4 cm2) and also the highest trees (361.8 cm). Tall spindle gave precocity and the best yield potential compared to the all others cultivars, followed by Solaxe. Tall spindle training system proved to be, besides the other technological works, the best ones regarding the all performances of high density apple orchards.