Centaurea Species Attractive Transylvanian (Romania) Endemic and Rare Plants with High Potential as Flowering Garden Plant

  • Ghizela VONICA
  • Maria CANTOR
Keywords: decorative characters, in situ conservation, ornamental potential, spontaneous species, vulnerable


The wild flora of Romania includes many species presenting with decorative value, some ofthem being introduced already in culture and other could represent in the future, new and importanthorticultural resource. In Romania, only a few species from Centaurea genus were introduced asornamental crops. This genus has many rare and vulnerable species with ornamental value, which aregrown on very small areas. The red lists of vascular plants include 19 species from Centaurea genusand only six species are grown in the intra-Carpathian area (Transylvania area): Centaurearatezatensis Prod., C. rarauensis Prod., C. maramarosensis (Jáv.) Dostál, C. pinnatifida Schur., C.kotskyana Heuff., C. reichenbachii DC. Other species like C. atropurpurea W.et K., C. pugioniformisNyar. or C. phrygia subsp. carpatica (Porc.) Dost. are not threatened but they can become vulnerablein the future due to habitats destruction and sheep pasturing. At the finally of this list is addedCentaurea orientalis L. species which is frequently presents in extra-Carpathian area but it is very rarein Transylvanian area. Part of this species (C. atropurpurea W. et K., C. ratezatensis Prod., and C.orientalis L.) have been studied in situ between 2010-2012, and their decorative characters wereobserved in the garden conditions. Some decorative characters of both cultivated and spontaneousplants were analyzed and compared and the results were statistically interpreted. In conclusion, thispaper presents the biological and ecological particularities of each Centaurea species, as well thefrequency, endemic character, regional distribution and sozological category.