Research on the Chemical Composition of Soil with Pollutant Effect in some Vineyards from northwestern Transylvania
Abstract. Soil pollution represents any unwanted change of its physical, chemical or biological characteristics, with direct implications on vegetation, animals and the human health. The chemical composition of soil affects the quality of grapes and wine. The research was conducted in Åžimleul Silvaniei and Baia Mare, soil samples were collected from vineyards planted with FeteascÄƒ, FeteascÄƒ RegalÄƒ and Italian Riesling. The quality of grapes, wine and the chemical composition of soil are closely interrelated. The chemical composition of soil analyzes the content of nutrient dynamics and their availability to plants. Samples were collected with the pedological drill, the sampling depths were 0-20 cm, 20-40 cm, 40-60 cm, 60-80 cm, disaggregated in the Berghof MWS2 microwave and the chemical composition was determined through the AAS method. In Baia Mare, the highest concentrations of metals were found in the soil layer 0-60 cm (7802 mg/kg Na, 4024 mg/kg Ca, 10,87 mg/kg Cd, 100,32 mg/kg Ni, 52,53 mg/kg Co) in the area where there is a large mass of roots. Pb pollutes with high values (2605 mg/kg) in the 20-40 cm horizon. In șimleul Silvaniei, only Ca has higher values (6381 mg/kg) than in Baia Mare in the same horizon (0-20 cm). All metals have lower values than in Baia Mare, due to the distance from the source of pollution. Through the genetic soil type, the parent rock influence and determining the chemical composition, it can be concluded that metals and heavy metals can lead to the pollution of vine.
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