Challenges for Sustainable Rural Water Management in Sulaimani Governorate in Kurdistan Region of Iraq: A Review Study
Rural communities face significant challenges, mostly because of globalization, demographic change, and rural-to-urban migration. Rural farmers make up a large portion of the population in every developing country, including The Kurdistan Region of Iraq (KRI). When rural farmers lack access to knowledge, general services, early warning systems (drought, pests, diseases, etc.), improved seedlings, fertilizer, agricultural equipment, credit, market prices, and information that would help them achieve the maximum agricultural yield, they are not only left in the dark but are forced to seek formal employment in urban areas. In KRI, over 90% of water is used for irrigation, and more than a quarter of irrigation withdrawals are deemed unsustainable. Climate changes all have an impact on water availability. Significant agricultural output is reliant on surface water, groundwater, or a mix of the two for irrigation. Over the last 20 years, a growing body of literature has examined the lack of agricultural water policy and a competent agricultural extension program has resulted in many difficulties in terms of water scarcity and the migration of rural people to urban areas in Sulaimani Governorate.